Orthodontics is the branch and specialty of dentistry concerned with the supervision, guidance, and correction of the growing or mature dentofacial structures and the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of any abnormalities associated with these structures.

Content

The NDSE in orthodontics tests a candidate’s knowledge and clinical competence in orthodontics at the specialty level in Canada. 

Blueprint

Canadian orthodontists are required to have broad knowledge and skills in seven domains. The blueprint below indicates the domains and approximate percentage of questions in each domain.

Orthodontic Blueprint

Approximate
% of
Questions

Anatomy, growth and development 15
Physiology 5
Patient management 5
Statistics 5
Biologic and physical science 10
Diagnosis 30
Treatment 30
Total 100%

Format

The examination will consist of two three-hour parts. The examination format consists of a mix of stand-alone short- and long-answer questions that assess general knowledge and application, and case-based questions that assess diagnostic and clinical decision-making.

References and Resources

Reference Texts

Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2013). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, United Kingdom: OUP USA.

Bell, W. H., Proffit, W. R., & White, R. P. (1980). Surgical Correction of Dentofacial Deformities. St. Louis: Saunders.

Bennett, J. C., & McLaughlin, R. P. (2002). Orthodontic Management of the Dentition with the Preadjusted Appliance. St. Louis: Mosby.

Brantley, W. A., & Eliades, T. (2001). Orthodontic Materials. Stuttgart, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag.

Cobourne, M. T., Fleming, P. S., DiBiase, A. T., & Ahmad, S. (2012). Clinical Cases in Orthodontics. Hoboken, NJ, United States: Wiley.

Cope J.B. (2007), Ortho TADS: The Clinical Guide and Atlas Dallas: Under Dog Media

Eliades, T. (2012). Research Methods in Orthodontics. New York, United States: Springer Publishing.

Eversole, L. R. (2011). Clinical Outline of Oral Pathology (4th ed). New York, United States: Penguin Random House.

Graber, L. W., Vanarsdall Jr, R. L., Huang, G. J., & Vig, K. W. L. (2016). An Introduction to Orthodontics (4th ed.). Maarssen, Netherlands: Elsevier

Kjær, I., & Kjaer, I. (2016). Etiology-Based Dental and Craniofacial Diagnostics. Hoboken, NJ, United States: Wiley.

Malamed, S.F.(2015). Medical emergencies in the dental office. (7th ed.) St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby.

Mitchell, L. (2013). An Introduction to Orthodontics. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Moore, K.  & Persaud, T.V.N.  (2019) The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (7th ed.) Elsevier Canada

Nanci, A., Ten Cate, A.R. (2018). Ten Cate's oral histology: development, structure, and function. (9th ed.) Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Nanda, R. (2005). Biomechanics and Esthetic Strategies in Clinical Orthodontics. Maarssen, Netherlands: Elsevier Gezondheidszorg.

Norton, N. S., & Netter, F. H. (2016). Netter’s Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry. St. Louis: Elsevier

Okeson, J. P. (2012). Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion (7th ed). Maarssen, Netherlands: Elsevier Gezondheidszorg

Ozar, D. T., Sokol, D. J., & Patthoff, D. E. (2018). Dental Ethics at Chairside (3rd ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Proffit, W.R. (2018). Contemporary orthodontics. (6th ed.) St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby

Proffit, W. R., & White, R. P. (1991). Surgical-orthodontic treatment. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.

Regezi, D. D. S. M. S., Sciubba, D., Jordan, R. C. K., Joseph A. Regezi, D. D. S. M. S., & James Sciubba, D. (2016). Oral Pathology. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Rowe, A. H. R., & Johns, R. B. (1981). A Companion to Dental Studies. Boston, Massachussets: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Shanbhag, T., Nayak, V. (2017). Pharmacology for Dentistry, (3rd.ed), Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Sperber, S. M., Sperber, S. M., & Guttmann, G. D. (2010). Craniofacial Embryogenetics and Development. New York, United States: Penguin Random House.

Takemoto, K., & Scuzzo, G. (2003). Invisible Orthodontics. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz Verlag.

Webb, P, Bain C. (2019) Essential Epidemiology: An Introduction for Students and Health Professionals, (4th ed.) United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Journals

Andreasen, J. O., Bakland, L. K., & Andreasen, F. M. (2006). Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 3. A clinical study of the effect of treatment variables such as treatment delay, method of repositioning, type of splint, length of splinting and antibiotics on 140 teeth. Dental Traumatology, 22(2), 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00423.x

Andreasen, J. O., Borum, M. K., Jacobsen, H. L., & Andreasen, F. M. (1995). Replantation of 400 avulsed permanent incisors. 4. Factors related to periodontal ligament healing. Dental Traumatology, 11(2), 76–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1995.tb00464.x

Becker, A., Abramovitz, I., & Chaushu, S. (2013). Failure of treatment of impacted canines associated with invasive cervical root resorption. The Angle Orthodontist, 83(5), 870–876. https://doi.org/10.2319/090812-716.1

Blake, M., & Bibby, K. (1998). Retention and stability: A review of the literature. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 114(3), 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0889-5406(98)70212-4

Burstone, C. J., & Koenig, H. A. (1974). Force systems from an ideal arch. American Journal of Orthodontics, 65(3), 270–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9416(74)90332-7

Chaushu, S., Shapira, J., Heling, I., & Becker, A. (2004). Emergency orthodontic treatment after the traumatic intrusive luxation of maxillary incisors. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 126(2), 162–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.06.019

Cozza, P., Baccetti, T., Franchi, L., De Toffol, L., & McNamara, J. A., Jr. (2006). Mandibular changes produced by functional appliances in Class II malocclusion: A systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 129(5), 599.e1-599.e12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.11.010

Daskalogiannakis, J., Ross, R. B., & Tompson, B. D. (2001). The mandibular catch-up growth controversy in Pierre Robin sequence. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 120(3), 280–285. https://doi.org/10.1067/mod.2001.115038

DiAngelis, A. J., Andreasen, J. O., Ebeleseder, K. A., Kenny, D. J., Trope, M., Sigurdsson, A., … Tsukiboshi, M. (2012). International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 1. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth. Dental Traumatology, 28(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01103.x

Farzanegan, F., Zebarjad, S. M., Alizadeh, S., & Ahrari, F. (2012). Pain reduction after initial archwire placement in orthodontic patients: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 141(2), 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.06.042

Graber, Lee W. (1978). Congenital absence of teeth: a review with emphasis on inheritance patterns. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 96(2), 266–275. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1978.0054

Handelman, C. S., & Greene, C. S. (2013). Progressive/Idiopathic Condylar Resorption: An Orthodontic Perspective. Seminars in Orthodontics, 19(2), 55–70. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.sodo.2012.11.004

Horiuchi, A., Hotokezaka, H., & Kobayashi, K. (1998). Correlation between cortical plate proximity and apical root resorption. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 114(3), 311–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0889-5406(98)70214-8

Huynh, N. T., Morton, P. D., Rompré, P. H., Papadakis, A., & Remise, C. (2011). Associations between sleep-disordered breathing symptoms and facial and dental morphometry, assessed with screening examinations. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 140(6), 762–770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.03.023

Iglehart, J. K. (2000). Revisiting the Canadian Health Care System. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(26), 2007–2012. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm200006293422624

Jacoby, H. (1979). The “ballista spring” system for impacted teeth. American Journal of Orthodontics, 75(2), 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9416(79)90183-0

Kahn, J. P., & Mastroianni, A. C. (2009). Epidemiology and Informed Consent. Ethics and Epidemiology, 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322934.003.0004

Katyal, V., Pamula, Y., Daynes, C. N., Martin, J., Dreyer, C. W., Kennedy, D., & Sampson, W. J. (2013). Craniofacial and upper airway morphology in pediatric sleep-disordered breathing and changes in quality of life with rapid maxillary expansion. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 144(6), 860–871. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.08.015

Lesaffre, E., Feine, J., Leroux, B., & Declerck, D. (Eds.). (2009). Statistical and Methodological Aspects of Oral Health Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470744116

Lobre, W. D., Callegari, B. J., Gardner, G., Marsh, C. M., Bush, A. C., & Dunn, W. J. (2016). Pain control in orthodontics using a micropulse vibration device:A randomized clinical trial. The Angle Orthodontist, 86(4), 625–630. https://doi.org/10.2319/072115-492.1

Mansio, A.S.C., Chen, A. (2019). Orthodontic Interventions in Cleft Lip & Palate Individuals: An Overview of Treatment Protocol. Oral Health. https://www.oralhealthgroup.com/features/orthodontic-interventions-in-cleft-lip-and-palate-individuals-an-overview-of-treatment-protocol/

Martelli-Júnior, H., Miranda, R. T. de, Fernandes, C. M., Bonan, P. R. F., Paranaíba, L. M. R., Graner, E., & Coletta, R. D. (2010). Goldenhar syndrome: clinical features with orofacial emphasis. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 18(6), 646–649. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-77572010000600019

Mizrahi, E., & Mizrahi, B. (2007). Mini-screw implants (temporary anchorage devices): orthodontic and pre-prosthetic applications. Journal of Orthodontics, 34(2), 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1179/146531207225021987

Murphy, T. C., Willmot, D. R., & Rodd, H. D. (2007). Management of postorthodontic demineralized white lesions with microabrasion: A quantitative assessment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 131(1), 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.04.041

Neeley, W. W., II, & Gonzales, D. A. (2007). Obesity in adolescence: Implications in orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 131(5), 581–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.03.028

Renjen, R., Maganzini, A. L., Rohrer, M. D., Prasad, H. S., & Kraut, R. A. (2009). Root and pulp response after intentional injury from miniscrew placement. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 136(5), 708–714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.12.031

Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario. Dental Emergencies: A guide to the treatment of patients requiring urgent dental care: The College; 2007

Sebbag, M., & Cavaré, A. (2017). Treatment of Brodie syndrome. Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics, 20(1), 109. https://doi.org/10.1051/odfen/2018118

Sfondrini, M., Cacciafesta, V., & Sfondrini, G. (2002). Upper molar distalization: a critical analysis. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 5(2), 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0544.2002.01155.x

Shintcovsk, R. L., Knop, L., Tanaka, O. M., & Maruo, H. (2014). Nicotine effect on bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement: Histological study in rats. Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, 19(2), 96–107. https://doi.org/10.1590/2176-9451.19.2.096-107.oar

The new CAN/CSA Z314-18 Canadian Medical Device Reprocessing https://ipac-canada.org/?t=CAN/CSA%20Z314-18%20Canadian%20Medical%20Device%20Reprocessing%20&command=viewArticle&ID=144&currentFeed=0

Vermylen, K., De Quincey, G. N. Th., Wolffe, G. N., van ’t Hof, M. A., & Renggli, H. H. (2005). Root proximity as a risk marker for periodontal disease: a case-control study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 32(3), 260–265. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051x.2005.00668.x

Wu, T.-T., Ko, E. W.-C., Chen, P. K.-T., & Huang, C.-S. (2013). Craniofacial characteristics in unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients with congenitally missing teeth. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 144(3), 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.04.019

Zachrisson, B. U., Nyøygaard, L., & Mobarak, K. (2007). Dental health assessed more than 10 years after interproximal enamel reduction of mandibular anterior teeth. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 131(2), 162–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.10.001